Objective: This study investigated the impact of the measures implemented for preventing the spread of the first coronavirus disease 2019 outbreak in Hokkaido on the activities and subjective health among community-dwelling older adults. Methods: We compared data from questionnaire surveys conducted in March and August 2019 and April 2020 with a sample of older adults living in an urban area of Hokkaido. Changes in frequency of and reasons behind outings were examined using the responses of the 119 participants of both surveys. We also compared the scores of physical, mental, and social health indicators at three time points—March and August 2019 and April 2020—for 75 participants. Results: In terms of cultural and social activities, the frequency of outings in 2020 decreased in comparison with 2019. Furthermore, scores for social health in August 2019 were significantly lower than those in April 2020. Conclusions: The results suggest that the measures implemented to prevent the spread of the first outbreak in Hokkaido impacted the activities and subjective health of community-dwelling older adults.
Objective: The objective of this study was to investigate self-care behaviors among people with type 2 diabetes within 10 years of diagnosis and examine the relationship between their self-care behaviors and diabetes knowledge and education. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, self-administered questionnaires were completed by people with type 2 diabetes within ten years of their initial diagnosis. The questionnaires assessed the performance level of self-care behaviors (The Summary of Diabetes Self-Care Activities Measure for Japanese), self-rated knowledge and diabetes education experiences, and sociodemographic factors. Results: The data of 125 participants were analyzed. Medication adherence was high at all times; however, relatively few patients engaged in dietary and exercise therapies. High levels of self-care behaviors were related to high levels of knowledge, first education about diabetes less than three months after diagnosis, and re-education more than two years after diagnosis. Conclusions: The findings suggest that knowledge is important for the maintenance of self-care behaviors; first education within three months of diagnosis and re-education after about two years are associated with high levels of self-care behaviors.
Objective: The purpose of this study was to clarify the current status and challenges of nursery teachers regarding influenza control. Methods: Semi-structured interviews were conducted individually with nine nursery teachers working in three childcare facilities in prefecture A, city B, based on a preliminary questionnaire and an interview guide. The survey was conducted in October 2018. The survey contents included (1) responses to influenza outbreak, (2) efforts to prevent influenza outbreak, and (3) challenges experienced in the implementation of countermeasures against influenza. Data analyses were conducted using descriptive qualitative methods. Results: Nursery teachers’ measures against influenza consisted of one category of countermeasures against the source, nine categories of countermeasures against the mode of transmission and three categories of countermeasures against a susceptible host. Nursery workers lacked confidence in their own influenza measures, so they adopted various initiatives that had no scientific basis. Conclusions: Nursery teachers preferred countermeasures that were focused on modes of transmission. It is crucial that nursery teachers have basic understanding of infectious diseases and a correct understanding of influenza, in order to evaluate their past practices and to select the necessary countermeasures.
Objective: In this study, we aimed to explore the experiences of Japanese older people living in Thailand, where English is not an official language, regarding their accessing of healthcare services. Methods: Semi-structured interviews were conducted with twenty Japanese expatriates who had visited local medical institutions in Chiang Mai, Thailand. Individual interview records were analyzed using the content analysis method. Results: Participants were 67.6 years old on average. A total of 225 comments were obtained. The participants had had “Health consciousness” and were engaged in favorable “actions to reduce the necessity of visiting local medical facilities” (28.9%). At hospital consultation, the participants had acquired “Various experiences of medical examination depending on the quality of medical staff” (30.2%). They mentioned “Difficulties in communication for medical treatment” (20.9%) and “Difficulties in obtaining desired services” (13.3%). After visiting the hospital, they had acquired “Awareness of necessity to form new patient-doctor relations” (5.3%) and been moved to “Requests for appropriate medical treatment based on the present situation” (1.3%). Conclusions: It is necessary for nurses in Japan to encourage Japanese expatriates to seek suitable local medical institutions, especially those where medical interpreters are sufficiently employed. It is also important to distribute information in order to sustain favorable health activities.
Objective: This study aimed to clarify the professional roles and functions of child-exclusive home-visit nursing stations that provide medical care for children with severe motor and intellectual disabilities. Moreover, the criteria for preparing new home-nursing visits to children and guidelines for nurses who care for the children and their families are described in this study. Methods: Interviews were conducted with the managers of five pediatric professional home-visit nursing stations. Consequently, a qualitative analysis was performed. Results: The child-exclusive home-visit nursing stations have the “role of pediatric home-visit nursing to support the families” consisting of the implementation of advanced care based on the characteristics of severely disabled children and nursing to support the lives of all family members. “Developing professional pediatric nurses” and “building a system to meet the needs of families” are the functions of the child-exclusive home-visit nursing station to fulfill the role of pediatric specialization. Conclusions: Promoting this educational and counseling function will lead to the expansion and quality improvement of home-visit nursing for children.
Objective: This study aims to explore nursing students’ perceptions of the oldest-old people after clinical training. Methods: A total of 65 students who had completed their clinical training in basic nursing were recruited for this study. Their perceptions of the oldest-old people were measured using Yasuda et al.’s SD method (semantic differential scale method) comprising 15 questionnaire items on perceptions of the elderly in six sections. The questionnaire also included open-ended questions for students to describe their perceptions of oldest-old people. Results: There were no significant differences in the total scores by gender of the oldest-old people, participants’ experience of living with grandparents, and their experience of the oldest-old people. Students perceived the oldest-old people as “weak,” “difficult to approach,” “deserving of respect,” “life history is affected,” “vitality,” “having a clear will,” “strong,” and “maintaining living functions.” This was evident from the student responses to the question on “individual differences.” Conclusions: We hypothesized that on-the-job training for students would familiarize them with the experience of providing care to oldest-old people and enable them to share their perceptions of the oldest-old people.
Objective: This study aimed to identify the factors affecting depression among individuals living with HIV in Yokohama, Japan. Methods: This study adopted a cross-sectional design. Several self-administered questionnaires were distributed to individuals living with HIV. These questionnaires included the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale, the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support, the Brief Coping Orientation to Problems Experienced Inventory, and a sociodemographic data form. Results: A total of 100 subjects returned completed questionnaires, with an estimated depression rate of 33% among respondents. In the multivariable logistic regression models, depression was significantly associated with non-regular employment and self-blame coping strategies. Depression was found to be inversely related to social support. Conclusions: This study found that the role of social support is significant among those experiencing depression resulting from living with HIV. Further, along with a better understanding of the coping methods employed by patients in managing such difficulties, effective depression prevention nursing interventions may be evaluated and implemented.